Specific to Baltimore are highlighted in Yellow)
documented arrival of Chinese on the east coast. A document in the National Archives
indicates that three Chinese sailors were stranded in Baltimore when the captain of their
ship, the Pallas,
||Gold discovered at
Sutters Mill, California. American ships recruited Chinese to help American
prospectors mine the newly discovered ore in the Gold Rush.
v. Hall, 4 Cal. 399 (1854) the California Supreme Court held that persons of Chinese
ancestry could not testify in court against a person of Caucasian descent. The
court, speaking through Chief Justice Hugh C. Murray, declared that "[t]he same rule
which would admit them to testify, would admit them to all the equal rights of
citizenship, and we might soon see them at the polls, in the jury box, upon the bench, and
in our legislative halls." Id. at 404.
||The California Gold rush
||Central Pacific Railroad Co.
recruits Chinese workers for the first transcontinental railroad.
||2,000 Chinese railroad
workers strike for one week.
to Asian migration records, the first Chinese may have arrived in Baltimore in the early
||Anti-Chinese Riots in San
Francisco and Los Angeles.
||In re Ah Yup, 1
F. Cas. 223 (1878) held that a native of China is not entitled to become a citizen of the
United States. Judge Sawyer stated that "[i]t is clear, from these proceedings
that congress retained the word 'white' in the naturalization laws for the sole purpose of
excluding the Chinese from the right of naturalization." Id. at
Exclusion Act prohibits Chinese laborers from entering the United States.
||Legislation Act-- total
exclusion of new entries and persecution of those already in the country.
only documented evidence that exists on the first Chinese who settled in Baltimore is an
October 25, 1932 interview of Gee Ott. Mr. Ott told a reporter from the Baltimore
Post that he owned the Empire Restaurant on 200 West Fayette Street during the 1880's.
The chronology of events derived from that interview revealed Mr. Ott arrived in
Baltimore around 1885.
||In Yick Wo v. Hopkins,
118 U.S. 353 (1886) the Supreme Court recognized that a laundry permit ordinance was
administered in a deliberate way to exclude all Chinese from the laundry business.
||The Scott Act mandated that
Chinese Laborers leaving the country could not return. This prevented the reentry of
at least 20,000 Chinese. In fact, a ship full of sojourners arriving in San
Francisco was forced to return to Hong Kong.
Chinese-American born in Baltimore was Lillie Lee Wong.
||The Geary Act prohibited
Chinese entry to the United States and also denied Chinese the right to bail, and habeas
corpus procedure; Chinese must possess residence certificate without which they could be
||Dr. Sun Yet
Sun, the father of the Republic of China, lived on Marion Street, Baltimore Chinatown, for
several months. He used Baltimore as his headquarters and organized Chinese in this
country to support him and overthrow the Celestial Empire. Sun Yet Sun campaigned
for financial support from Chinese in America. Then, he went to Europe to solicit
support to help his revolution. In 1911, Sun Yet Sun established the Republic of
China and was elected the first President.
and her family arrived in Baltimore.
news article written about Chinese Sunday School and evening school appeared on November
5, 1922 in the Baltimore Post, entitled "Americans Converting Chinese to
Christianity." It explained that while Joss houses still existed in Chinatown,
people were slowly succumbing to American ways by converting to Christianity.
According to the news article, over thirty members in the Chinese Sunday School
studied under the guidance of Miss. Francis Marshall of the YMCA.
Marshall sisters brought their Chinese School to Grace and St. Peters Church.
||Chinese Exclusion Act--only
sons and daughters of United States native-born were allowed entry to the United States.
||In Gong Lum v. Rice,
275 U.S. 78 (1927), Chief Justice Taft held that "[a] child of Chinese blood, born
in, and a citizen of, the United States, is not denied the equal protection of the laws by
being classed by the State among the colored races who are assigned to public school
separate from those provided for the whites, when equal facilities for education are
afforded to both classes." Id. at 79.
Cantonese Language School was established in Chinatown. Approximately forty youths
were enrolled in this program at 314 Mulberry Street.
||The Congress of the United
States repealed the Exclusion Act of 1882 and granted an annual entry quota of 105 Chinese
to the United States.